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A meeting ground between the East and the West, it has always been an invader’s paradise, while at the same time its natural isolation and magnetic religions allowed it to adapt to and absorb many of the peoples who penetrated its mountain passes. No matter how many Persians, Greeks, Chinese nomads, Arabs, Portuguese, British and other raiders had their way with the land, local Hindu kingdoms invariably survived their depradations, living out their own sagas of conquest and collapse. All the while, these local dynasties built upon the roots of a culture well established since the time of the first invaders, the Aryans. In short, India has always been simply too big, too complicated, and too culturally subtle to let any one empire dominate it for long. True to the haphazard ambiance of the country, the discovery of India’s most ancient civilization literally happened by accident. British engineers in the mid ‘s, busy constructing a railway line between Karachi and Punjab, found ancient, kiln-baked bricks along the path of the track. This discovery was treated at the time as little more than a curiosity, but archaeologists later revisited the site in the ‘s and determined that the bricks were over years old.

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Punjab, also spelled Panjab, was a province of British of the Punjab region was annexed by the East India Company in , and was one of the last areas of the Indian subcontinent to fall under British control. It comprised five administrative divisions, Delhi, Jullundur, Lahore, Multan and Rawalpindi and a number of princely states. In , the partition of India led to the.

Just as feared, large clashes, arson and violence erupted in the town of Panchkula in Haryana on Friday immediately after spiritual guru Gurmeet Ram Rahim Singh was convicted of raping two women followers in a case dating back to Thirty people are dead and injured, officials said, in the violence that quickly spread to other cities.

Ram Rahim will be sentenced on Monday and was flown out of Panchkula in a government helicopter to a guesthouse in Rohtak and later moved to a special prison cell. Here is your point cheatsheet on this big story: By 5 pm yesterday, the army was called in to Panchkula , on the outskirts of Chandigarh, to help regain control after the riots caused by more than 1. Before that, the police used tear gas and water cannons to try and disperse mobs of Ram Rahim supporters, but was easily outnumbered near the courthouse.

After Panchkula, where the violence subsided by about 7 pm with Ram Rahim’s supporters being moved out, the army was deployed in Sirsa , Ram Rahim’s massive base. Large and intense clashes took place between the police and members of Ram Rahim’s sect, the Dera Sacha Sauda. Several buildings were set on fire. Two people were killed, both of them sect members. In tweets, Prime Minister Narendra Modi condemned the violence , saying it was “deeply distressing” and added the situation was being closely monitored.

Ram Rahim’s sect will appeal against Friday’s verdict. A lawyer for him said people have every right to express their outrage, according to news agency Reuters.

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Brahmin Who are they? The Brahmin people are a prominent community spread across the whole of India. The Brahmin are the highest of the four Hindu castes, made up of priests and scholars of Vedic literature and their traditional occupation is to concern themselves with the spiritual guidance of the people, conduct rites at marriages, births, deaths and other auspicious occasions. In practice the caste and the profession are not to be treated as one. All Brahmin are not priests.

In fact, a majority of them are not and there is a striking range of diversities in terms of status and occupation among the Brahmin all over the country.

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The country was finally annexed and dissolved at the end of the Second Anglo-Sikh War in into separate princely states and the British province of Punjab. Eventually, a Lieutenant Governorship was formed in Lahore as a direct representative of the British Crown. Partition of Punjab[ edit ] The Punjab region , with its rivers. The land of the Punjabi People The independence of India and Pakistan, and the subsequent partition of Punjab, is considered by historians to be the beginning of the end of the British Empire.

However, the growth of Muslim nationalism led to the All India Muslim League becoming the dominant party in the elections. As Muslim separatism increased, the opposition from Punjabi Hindus and Sikhs increased substantially. Communal violence on the eve of Indian independence led to the dismissal of the coalition government, although the succeeding League ministry was unable to form a majority.

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Early Vedic period In addition to the archaeological legacy discussed above, there remains from this period the earliest literary record of Indian culture , the Vedas. Composed in archaic , or Vedic, Sanskrit, generally dated between and bce, and transmitted orally, the Vedas comprise four major texts—the Rig-, the Sama-, the Yajur-, and the Atharvaveda. Of these, the Rigveda is believed to be the earliest.

Theories concerning the origins of the Aryans, whose language is also called Aryan , relate to the question of what has been called the Indo-European homeland. In the 17th and 18th centuries ce, European scholars who first studied Sanskrit were struck by the similarity in its syntax and vocabulary to Greek and Latin. This resulted in the theory that there had been a common ancestry for these and other related languages, which came to be called the Indo-European group of languages.

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Environment[ edit ] There has been increasing incidence of various types of cancer in and around Bathinda. It is attributed to the presence of polluting industries and the indiscriminate use of modern pesticides and other toxic materials in farming. A epidemiological study found that the surface waters of Bathinda are contaminated with arsenic , cadmium , chromium , selenium and mercury primarily due to the discharge of untreated waste water from surrounding industries. Unscientific farming practices, that emerged after the introduction of Green Revolution , are also alleged to be a reason for growing incidence of not just cancer but also, high rates of spontaneous abortions, reproductive aliments, genetic deformities, anaemia , diarrhoea , vomiting, fluorosis and a host of skin ailments including rashes and boils.

Many young couples are also reported to be migrating out to save their children from adverse effects. Hence the government has completely banned the use of ground water in the city for drinking purposes. Senior Secondary School Boys is one of the oldest educational institutes and many English medium schools have also come up in the city during the last 30 years. Many missionary schools are being run in the city, such as St. Joseph’s Convent Secondary School found in and St.

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Mythology to History A brief overview of the irrefutable substantial evidence now available which corroborates Vedic statements, timelines, history and innumerable other facts stated in the vast Vedic literatures — much of which unfortunately have previously been regarded as mythology. Strong substantiation by scientific investigation now moves these narrations from the realm of mythology to that of historical facts.

Vishnu A detailed overview of the various contributions of ancient Vedic Indian culture to our civilization —authenticated with new evidences based on latest scientific methodologies. Read about it here. Pakistani archaeologists have discovered a rare Indus Valley civilization-era seal of an ibus in steatite dating back to 2, , BC from the Cholistan area of Punjab province.

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Punjab comes from the Persian words panj five and ab river and means “Land of the Five Rivers. The Punjab is an ancient center of culture in the Indian subcontinent. It lay within the bounds of the Harappan civilization, the sophisticated urban city-based culture that flowered in the Indus Valley during the third millennium BC. Harappa, one of the two great cities of this civilization, was located on the Ravi River in what is now Pakistan’s Punjab Province. The Punjab has also been one of the great crossroads of southern Asian history.

Nomadic tribes speaking Indo-European languages descended from the mountain passes in the northwest to settle on the plains of the Punjab around BC. After then, Persians, Greeks, Huns, Turks, and Afghans were among the many peoples that entered the Indian subcontinent through the northwestern passes and left their mark on the region.

Punjabis, who are basically of Aryan, or Indo-European ancestry, are the modern descendants of the mixture of peoples that passed through the region. At times in the past, the Punjab and its population have enjoyed a special political identity as well as a cultural identity. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries AD , the region was administered as a province of the Mogul Empire. As recently as the nineteenth century, much of the area was united under the Sikh nation of Ranjit Singh.

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For the histories of these latter two countries since their creation, see Pakistan and Bangladesh. Since early times the Indian subcontinent appears to have provided an attractive habitat for human occupation. Toward the south it is effectively sheltered by wide expanses of ocean, which tended to isolate it culturally in ancient times, while to the north it is protected by the massive ranges of the Himalayas , which also sheltered it from the Arctic winds and the air currents of Central Asia.

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Probably India did not have a clear local name earlier because, like China , it seemed to be the principal portion of the entire world, and so simply the world itself. Sumeru or Meru , the only one inhabited with humans identical to us. The only question was how much of it was taken up by India. Indeed, India was once an island in the Mesozoic Ocean, but it moved north and collided with Asia. In Chinese, we get various ways of referring to India. The modern form, , renders the name phonetically with characters of no particular semantic significance “print, stamp, or seal” and “a rule, law, measure, degree”.

The older practice, however, was dedicated characters that might have a larger meaning. Thus, we get or , in which can be a kind of bamboo but otherwise is just used for India. Thus we get expressions like , “Sanskrit,” , “Sanskrit characters. The rule of the Sult. The supremely foreign unification of India, of course, was from the British, under whom India achieved its greatest unity, although that was lost upon independence to the religious division between India and Pakistan.

Ram Rahim Guilty Of Rape, 30 Dead, 250 Injured As Sect Erupts: 10 Facts

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Etymology[ edit ] The region was originally called Sapta Sindhu , [27] the Vedic land of the seven rivers flowing into the ocean. Of the five great rivers of Punjab, four course through Pakistan’s Punjab province. History of Punjab Due to its location, the Punjab region came under constant attack and witnessed centuries of foreign invasions by the Persians , Greeks , Kushans , Scythians , Turks and Afghans. The northwestern part of South Asia , including Punjab, was repeatedly invaded or conquered by various foreign empires, including those of Tamerlane , Alexander the Great , and Genghis Khan.

Ancient history[ edit ] Location of Punjab, Pakistan and the extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation sites in and around it Soanian culture first flourished in the soan valley of northern Punjab. Tools up to two million years old have been recovered in potohar plateau. In the Soan River, many fossil bearing rocks are exposed on the surface.

Punjab during Mahabharata times was known as Panchanada. The Indus Valley Civilization spanned much of what is today Pakistan and eventually evolved into the Indo-Aryan civilization. The Vedic civilisation flourished along the length of the Indus River. This civilization shaped subsequent cultures in South Asia and Afghanistan. Although the archaeological site at Harappa was partially damaged in when engineers constructing the Lahore-Multan railroad used brick from the Harappa ruins for track ballast, an abundance of artefacts have nevertheless been found.

It also comprised the Gujar empire for a period of time, otherwise known as the Gurjara-Pratihara empire.

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Its territorial jurisdiction extends to the whole State of Punjab. It started its functioning from Camp Office in April , which happens to be the residence of the Vice Chancellor, and from November it shifted to its City Campus spread over an area of 35 acres. Construction of the main campus has started on acres of land in Ghudda Village It has M. The college is located on the Barnala Bathinda Highway.

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Tweet Dalhousie is a beautiful hill station in Himachal Pradesh. Established in by the British Empire in India as a summer retreat for its troops and bureaucrats, the town was named after Lord Dalhousie who was the British viceroy in India at that time. It is built on and around five hills. Located on the western edge of the Dhauladhar mountain range of the Himalayas, it is surrounded by the beautiful scenery of snow-capped peaks.

Dalhousie is situated between 6, and 9, feet above sea level. The best time to visit is in the summer, and the peak tourist season is from May to September.

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